ResearchProjects | Publications
Blueprints of Hope: Designing Post-War Europe. Ideas, Emotions, Networks and Negotiations (1930-1963)
Postdoctoral Researcher, co-promotor, daily project management
Funding: NWO Free Competition
Project team: Beatrice de Graaf (Principal Investigator), Peter-Ben Smit, Mathieu Segers, Jorrit Steehouder, Clemens van den Berg
Since its inception the European integration project has been contested. We aim to show why some blueprints put their stamp on the institutional start-up of European integration, while other blueprints were rejected. To this end we focus on transnational political, clerical and economic networks. Including a wider range of actors, the project expands the existing historiography of the EU’s “early” integration. Moreover, such a new understanding of the diversity of ideas of “what is Europe” in these early years of European integration may help to elucidate the driving forces and institutional dynamics in today’s EU.
Subproject 1-Ideas & Emotions
Building upon the “emotive” turn in the history of International Relations, I aim to conceptualize and analyse the battle of ideas among different blueprints of Europe. To this end, blueprints are not just understood as encompassing economic ideas, but also including emotive and moral considerations.
Subproject 2-Networks & Negotiations
Using a Discourse Network Analysis, I aim to visualize the different transnational networks that were behind different blueprints of Europe. It specifically focuses on the discussions for a European Defence Community in the 1950s.
Normative Power and Military Means: the evolving character of the EU’s international power
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Funding: NWO Research Talent
Promotor: Ben Crum
2e Promotor: Liesbet Hooghe
From 2003-2016, the EU has launched 11 military operations as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy. While the EU’s use of force has often been presented as part of promoting the EU’s peace project beyond its borders, this idea of the EU as a “force for good” has been fiercely criticized as well. The character of the EU as international security actor is essentially contested. Hence, this dissertation aims to answer the question: How has the character of the EU as an international power evolved ever since it started to launch military operations?
I assess the EU’s international power along three dimensions: policy-embeddedness, justification and UN-authorization. A comprehensive analysis of the EU’s military operations along these dimensions shows that the EU has evolved from a normative power to a more liberal power.
Moreover, distinguishing between four advocacy coalitions (Global Power EU, Euro-Atlanticists, Human Security and the Bystanders) I examine the decision-making dynamics of three specific military operations: EUFOR Althea, EUNAVOR Atalanta, EUNAVFOR Sophia. I argue that rather than “learning” or “hard bargaining” it is “cooperative bargaining” that characterizes the decision-making in the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy.