Embedded in social cleavages:
An explanation of the variation in timing of womens suffrage
This article answers the question: Under which conditions did introduction of women’s suffrage occur before the First World War (early), and when only after the Second World War (late)? It uses Rokkan’s cleavage theory to answer this question. It adds a structural dimension to agency-based studies on the role of women’s movements. Moreover, it advances democratization literature that limits itself to the timing of the introduction of male suffrage as indicator of democratization.